Savvy outdoor designs that are easy to maintain and economical are the newest in architectural advancement. Marcus Hiles has seen the upsurge in demand for open-air spaces that are sustainable and also reduce expenses. Environmental and conservation options such as rainwater/graywater harvesting and permeable pavement are commonly followed methods. Using rooftop collection methodology, rainwater harvesting sends wetness from the air for storage in a well to be disinfected and reused on-site. Graywater makes use of home wastewater and sends it to toilets and non-drinking purposes, reducing fresh water needs and saving resources on purification. An extraordinary idea for environmentally minded construction, permeable paving, goes back to thousands of years to an era when people first constructed roads by putting stones in beds over the ground. The method allows the rain to pass through small openings among four layers of filtration (paving material, gravel, fabric, sand) before becoming absorbed by the earth underneath. Its advantages include lowering runoff and pollution, restricting the flow of storm water to gutters and drains, refilling local groundwater supplies and providing a skid resistant surface for walkways, patios and driveways; their various pretty patterns often feature crushed stone, brick, and recycled concrete.