Marcus Hiles says that the first bits of planned communities in the United States were seen in St. Augustine in the year 1565. Amid the industrial revolution, towns like Gary, Indiana were the locales of innovative creations and financial enthusiasm. The underlying present day communities showed up amid the Florida land boom of the 1920s in Southern Florida, when the renowned Miami rural areas of Coral Gables, Opa-locka, and Miami Springs were completely planned with themes to imitate the look and engineering of Spain, Arabia, and Mexico. The Great Depression saw the Federal Government assemble model towns in West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Ohio, and Wisconsin with a specific end goal to bring down the effect of the financial downturn on coal excavators, development specialists, and their families. The far off districts of Oak Ridge, TN; Richland, WA, and Los Alamos, NM were worked amid World War II to suit the groups of the researchers, designers and industrialized laborers of the Manhattan Project. Today, arranged urban areas cover the nation, in addition to the country’s capital of Washington, D.C., and the state capitals of Mississippi, Ohio, Indiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Wisconsin, Utah, Florida, and Texas.
Savvy outdoor designs that are easy to maintain and economical are the newest in architectural advancement. Marcus Hiles has seen the upsurge in demand for open-air spaces that are sustainable and also reduce expenses. Environmental and conservation options such as rainwater/graywater harvesting and permeable pavement are commonly followed methods. Using rooftop collection methodology, rainwater harvesting sends wetness from the air for storage in a well to be disinfected and reused on-site. Graywater makes use of home wastewater and sends it to toilets and non-drinking purposes, reducing fresh water needs and saving resources on purification. An extraordinary idea for environmentally minded construction, permeable paving, goes back to thousands of years to an era when people first constructed roads by putting stones in beds over the ground. The method allows the rain to pass through small openings among four layers of filtration (paving material, gravel, fabric, sand) before becoming absorbed by the earth underneath. Its advantages include lowering runoff and pollution, restricting the flow of storm water to gutters and drains, refilling local groundwater supplies and providing a skid resistant surface for walkways, patios and driveways; their various pretty patterns often feature crushed stone, brick, and recycled concrete.
Fuel sources high on carbon such as coal and natural gas add up to over 60% of the electricity available worldwide. Nuclear, hydro, wind and solar are cleaner sources of power, but the process of getting them is too costly for the usual American. As an alternative, Marcus Hiles recommends smart and restricted use of lights, refrigeration, entertainment and cleaning appliances. By merely switching from old, incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent lights, energy usage for operation can be decreased up to 80%, and new light emitting diodes (LED) are even better options. Fridges and freezers can be made more optimal by not setting them too cold, making sure they are correctly sealed, are well defrosted, and positioned in the coolest area possible. Televisions, computers, phones and other technology must be turned off and unplugged when not in use, as even their standby use can be major. Laundry machines and dishwashers mostly have very high wattage, and their need makes it difficult to limit their use. However, cuts in energy consumption can be made by selecting the coldest temperature achievable, and by only washing full loads.